It is the point in the Earth’s orbit when it is farthest from the sun (152.5 million km).
When the earth is closest to the sun (perihelion), around 3rd January each year, tidal ranges are also much greater, with unusually high and unusually low tides. When the earth is farthest from the sun (aphelion),around 4th July each year, tidal ranges are much less than average. The time between the high tide and low tide, when the water level is falling, is called the ebb. The time between the low tide and high tide,when the tide is rising, is called the flow or flood.
Air Mass : A body of air whose temperature and humidity characteristics, acquired in source region, remain relatively constant over a horizontal distance of hundreds to thousands of km. Air masses develop their climatic characteristics by remaining stationary over a source region for a number of days. Air masses are classified according to their temperature and humidity characteristics.
Like the land and sea breezes, the passage of air masses also affects the temperature. The places, which
come under the influence of warm air-masses experience higher temperature and the places that come under the influence of cold airmasses experience low temperature. Similarly,the places located on the coast where the warm ocean currents flow record higher temperature than the places located on the coast where the
cold currents flow.
The rate of change of temperature by an ascending or descending airmass.
The rate of change of temperature by an ascending or descending airmass. If no other non-adiabatic processes (means no heat enters or leaves system) occur(like condensation, evaporation and radiation), expansion causes the parcel of air to cool at a set rate of 0.98° per 100 m. The opposite occurs when a parcel of air descends in the atmosphere. The air in a descending parcel becomes compressed. Compression causes the temperature within the parcel to increase at a rate of 0.98° per 100 m.
Abiotic : Non-living thing. Usually refers to the physical and chemical components
of an organism’s environment.
The environment as you know, is made up of abiotic and biotic components.The balance between abiotic and biotic components is maintained in a particular proportion so that a healthy interaction between the biotic and the abiotic components goes on.
The interactions of a particular group of organisms with abiotic factors within a particular habitat resulting in clearly defined energy flows and material cycles on land, water and air, are called ecological systems.
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